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16. verbal nouns, participles

verbal noun (gerund)

Verbal noun (or gerund) is a word having grammatical behavior (e.g. cases, gender, ...) of a noun, but representing some process expressed by a verb. A verbal noun is a noun that is derived from a verb and that still can have a subject and a subject.

Verbal noun is made from the passive participle by adding the endings -ije. Verbal noun has neutral gender and is inflected by the soft neuter pattern polje, polja, polju, ...

examples:

pisati, pisanypisanije (writing)
slyšeti, slyšenyslyšenije (hearing)
variti, varienyvarienije (boiling)
gybnuti, gybnutygybnutije (dying)
dielati, dielanydielanije (doing)

verbal nouns (gerunds) are used in the same way as in English:

Govorienije jest srebro, m'lčenije jest zlato. = Speaking is silver, silence is golden.


transformation clause↔gerund

see this table showing how to transform a clause into a gerund. In this way we can compress the whole sentence to the gerund, which can be used as a part of another clause.

 entire clause 
 verbal noun (gerund)
 verb in a personal form 
 gerund
 adverb (extending verb)
 adjective (extending gerund)
 subject of a sentence (in nominative) 
 attribute in genitive with preposition ot (from)
 object of a sentence (in accusative)
 attribute in genitive without any preposition or possessive pronoun 
 adverbial part in some case and with some preposition 
 attribute in the same case and with the same preposition

examples:

(Ja) pišu pismo. = I write a letter. - normal clause
moje pisanije pisma = my writing of a letter - gerund with transformed subject (ja) and object (pismo).
Jesi li vidiel moje pisanije pisma? = Did You see my writing of a letter? - gerund used as an object in another clause

(Ty) čitaješ dobro. = You are reading good. - normal clause
dobre čitanije ot tebe = good reading of You - gerund with transformed subject (ty) and adverb (dobro).

Bog čudiesno iztvoriše (pf.) človieka.
 = The God miraculously created a man. - normal clause
čudiesne iztvorienije človieka ot Boga
 = miraculous creation of a man by the God. - gerund with transformed subject (Bog), object (človiek) and adverb (čudiesno).
Vieruju v čudiesne iztvorienije človieka ot Boga.
 
= I believe in miraculous creation of a man by the God. - gerund used as an object in another clause


adjectival participles

Neoslavonic has a total number of four participles having adjective behavior (e.g. gender, number and case in the same way as ordinary adjectives). One of them is already known passive participle. But there are two passive participles: One is related to the past tense, second in related to the present tense. The same symmetry stands for two active participles. Please remember these symmetries:

  1. All past-tense adjectival participles are made from the infinitive. There is only one pattern for the past-tense adjectival participles both for passive and active.

  2. All present-tense related participles are made from the present-time stem. Symmetrical to the present tense conjugation, there are two patterns of present-tense adjectival participles (e.g. -eše/u and -iši/ju) both for passive and active.

table of Neoslavonic adjective participles

   active  
 passive 
 present -eš pattern 
 -učy  -emy
 present -iš pattern
 -jučy  -imy
 universal past pattern 
 -všy  -ny or -ty

* rules for selecting -ny or -ty with corresponding vowel has been already described in the previous chapter.

Note that English has only two participles: present active and past passive. This means that the English speaker will need to take care, that there are two tenses for both active and passive participle.

examples of passive participles:

example of adjectival participles of the verb p-i-ti, pij-u, pij-eš, ..., p-i-l, ... (to drink, -eš pattern)

   active 
 passive 
 present 
 pij-učy 
 pij-emy 
 past  pi-všy  p-i-ty

example of adjectival participles of the verb rabot-a-ti, rabotaj-u, rabotaj-eš, ..., rabot-a-l, ... (to drink, -eš pattern)

   active 
 passive 
 present 
 rabotaj-učy 
 rabotaj-emy 
 past  rabot-a-všy  rabot-a-ny

example of adjectival participles of the verb var-i-ti, var-ju, var-iš, ..., var-i-l, ... (to boil, to cook, -iš pattern)

   active 
 passive 
 present 
 var-jučy 
 var-imy 
 past  var-ie-všy 
 var-ie-ny 

examples of passive participles:

Tuto jest najpijeme pivo v našej krajinie. = This is the most drunk beer in our country.
(this is the present passive participle, because we speak about the present time)

Moja butylka jest izpita. = My bottle is drunk.
(
this is the past passive participle, because now my bottle is empty)

Hočeš li jasti variene meso? = Do You want to eat boiled meat?
(this is the past passive participle, because meat has been boiled before our present time)

examples of active participles:

Rabotajučy človiek ne imaje svobodne vreme. = A working man has no free time.
(this is the present active participle - a man is working now, in the present)

Na stolu jest varjuča voda. = There is boiling water at the table.
(this is the present active participle - water is boiling now, in the present)

Prosime, davajte dorabotavše električske pribory do ekologičnego otpada. = Please, put "old, used" electrical appliances in ecological waste.
(this is the past active participle - appliances have finished their working)


adverbial participles, clause transformation to adverbial participle

Adverbial participles are similar to verbal nouns (gerunds). Both represent a process using different grammatical category (e.g. as a noun or as an adverb).

Adverbial participles are very useful in situations when we want to incorporate one clause to another clause, if both clauses have the same subject. An adverbial participle behaves as an ordinary adverb and can be interpreted as the second auxiliary/subordinate verb to the main superordinate verb in the same sentence.

There are two adverbial participles: present and past. Adverbial participles are made from active adjectival participles by simple endings modification as follows:

table of Neoslavonic adverbial participles

 present -eš pattern 
 -uč
 present -iš pattern
 -juč 
 universal past pattern 
 -v

note that these participles (as well as ordinary adverbs) do not have gender, number and cases

example of the present adverbial participle:

1st (superordinate) clause: Redaktor slyši šum aut na ulicie. = An editor hears the noise of cars on the street.
2nd (subordinate) clause: Redaktor piše članek do novin. = An editor is writing an article for newspapers.

Both clauses have the same subject. We can merge them into the only one sentence as follows:
Redaktor pišuč članek do novin slyši šum aut na ulice. = An editor (when writing an article for newspapers) hears the noise of cars on the street.
The same sentence moved to the past time:
Redaktor pišuč članek do novin je slyšel šum aut na ulice. = An editor (when writing an article for newspapers) have heard the noise of cars on the street.

the same example of the past adverbial participle:

1st (superordinate) clause: Redaktor slyši šum aut na ulicie. = An editor hears the noise of cars on the street.
2nd (subordinate) clause: Redaktor je dopisal članek do novin. = An editor wrote (e.g. completed writing) an article for newspapers.

Both clauses have the same subject. We can merge them into the only one sentence as follows:
Redaktor dopisav članek do novin slyši šum aut na ulice. = An editor (after writing an article for newspapers) hears the noise of cars on the street.
The same sentence moved to the past time:
Redaktor dopisav članek do novin je slyšel šum aut na ulice. = An editor (after writing an article for newspapers) have heard the noise of cars on the street.
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